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Clifford Stott

Clifford Stott

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I am currently a Director of a consultancy and training company ‘Crowd and Conflict Management Ltd’ whilst also Visiting Professor to the Socio-Technical Centre within Leeds University Business School. I am Europe’s leading academic expert on the social psychology of collective action and its relationship to crowd conflict and public order policing. I played a primary role in developing the dominant scientific approach to crowd psychology, particularly as this relates to understanding collective conflict or ‘rioting’. I have published widely in leading journals and co-authored two books. I was recently joint guest Editor for a special edition on the crowd of the Journal of the Academy of the Social Sciences. For the last twelve years I have worked regularly with police force, governments, and football authorities across the world advising on the implications of crowd psychology for strategy and tactics in the management of crowd events.

The impact of my research has been acknowledged in formal policy documents issued by the European Council and European Union and national Governments. I have been invited keynote speaker at a range of high level policing conferences. I have lectured at the European Police College (CEPOL) and at National Police Colleges in the U.K., Northern Ireland, Portugal, Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Estonia and Australia. I was responsible for developing and delivering the curriculum of the ‘Pan European Football Police Training Project’ a €1.2 million Euro project funded by the European Commission and UEFA to train police commanders from twenty one European Nations in techniques for and approaches to crowd management. In 2012 I was involved in a collaborative project to develop a new Strategic Commanders Course for Australia's New South Wales Police, the highest-level training programme provided by the Service. I have recently completed a project delivering training materials for London's Metropolitan Police public order command cadre.

Primary Interests:

  • Aggression, Conflict, Peace
  • Applied Social Psychology
  • Group Processes
  • Intergroup Relations
  • Law and Public Policy
  • Political Psychology
  • Prejudice and Stereotyping
  • Research Methods, Assessment
  • Self and Identity
  • Social Cognition
  • Sociology, Social Networks

Research Group or Laboratory:


Journal Articles:

  • Reicher, S., Stott, C., Drury, J., Adang, O., Cronin, P., & Livingstone, A. (2007). Knowledge-based public order policing: Principles and practice. Policing, 1, 403-415.
  • Stott, C. J., Adang, O. M., Livingstone, A., & Schreiber, M. (2008). Tackling football hooliganism: A quantitative study of public order, policing and crowd psychology. Psychology Public Policy and Law, 14(2), 115-141.
  • Stott, C. J., Adang, O. M., Livingstone, A., & Schreiber, M. (2007). Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro2004: Public order policing, social identity, intergroup dynamics and social change. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 75-100.
  • Stott, C. J., & Drury, J. (2004). The importance of social structure and social interaction in stereotype consensus and content: Is the whole greater than the sum of its parts? European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 11-23.
  • Stott, C. J., & Drury, J. (2000). Crowds, context and identity: Dynamic categorization processes in the "poll tax riot." Human Relations, 53, 247-273.
  • Stott, C. J., Hutchison, P., & Drury, J. (2001). "Hooligans" abroad? Inter-group dynamics, social identity and participation in collective "disorder" at the 1998 World Cup finals. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 359-384.
  • Stott, C. J., & Reicher, S. D. (1998). Crowd action as inter-group process: Introducing the police perspective. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 509-529.
  • Stott, C. J., & Reicher, S. D. (1998). How conflict escalates: The inter-group dynamics of collective football crowd "violence." Sociology, 32, 353-377.
  • Stott, C., Livingstone, A., & Hoggett, J. (2008). Policing football crowds in England and Wales: A model of "good practice"? Policing and Society, 18, 258-281.
  • Stott, C., & Pearson, G. (2006). Football banning orders proportionality and public order policing. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 241-254.

Courses Taught:

  • Group Psychology
  • Introduction to Psychology
  • Managing Crowd Dynamics at Major Events
  • Policing and Crime Reduction
  • Research Methodology

Clifford Stott
Socio-Technical Centre
University of Leeds
Leeds LS2 9JT
United Kingdom

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